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Neurosurgery. 2006 Oct;59(4):767-73; discussion 773-4.

Dynamics of intraventricular hemorrhage in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: risk factors, clinical impact, and effect of hemostatic therapy with recombinant activated factor VII.

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Department of Neurology, Univesity of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.



To evaluate predictors of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and IVH growth, impact of IVH growth on outcome, and impact of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).


We analyzed 374 patients out of 399 who were randomized to rFVIIa (40, 80, or 160 mug/kg) or placebo for ICH (diagnosed within 3 h of symptoms). Risk factors for IVH growth (>2 ml increase in IVH volume at 24 h), and death or severe disability (modified Rankin scale score 4-6) at 3 months were identified (logistic regression).


IVH was present in 38% (n = 141) of patients at baseline and 45% (n = 169) by 24 hours. IVH growth, by 24 hours, occurred in 17 and 10% of placebo- and rFVIIa-treated patients, respectively (P = 0.037). Risk factors for IVH growth included baseline mean arterial pressure greater than 120 mmHg, larger baseline ICH volume, IVH present at baseline, shorter time from symptom onset to baseline computed tomographic scan, and treatment (rFVIIa versus placebo) (all, P < or = 0.037). Predictors of death or severe disability included older age, lower baseline Glasgow Coma Score, larger baseline ICH volume, IVH growth greater than 2 ml, IVH present at baseline or 24 hours, and treatment (rFVIIa versus placebo) (all, P < or = 0.0405).


Presence of IVH at any time and early IVH growth worsen clinical outcome and increase mortality. Elevated mean arterial pressure at baseline may be a modifiable risk factor for IVH growth. Beneficial effects of rFVIIa on ICH outcome may be mediated, at least in part, by reducing IVH growth.

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