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Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Nov;79(5):792-806. Epub 2006 Sep 21.

Generalized genomic distance-based regression methodology for multilocus association analysis.

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Polymorphism Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Divisions of Epidemiology, Center for Human Genetics and Genomics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0603, USA.


Large-scale, multilocus genetic association studies require powerful and appropriate statistical-analysis tools that are designed to relate genotype and haplotype information to phenotypes of interest. Many analysis approaches consider relating allelic, haplotypic, or genotypic information to a trait through use of extensions of traditional analysis techniques, such as contingency-table analysis, regression methods, and analysis-of-variance techniques. In this work, we consider a complementary approach that involves the characterization and measurement of the similarity and dissimilarity of the allelic composition of a set of individuals' diploid genomes at multiple loci in the regions of interest. We describe a regression method that can be used to relate variation in the measure of genomic dissimilarity (or "distance") among a set of individuals to variation in their trait values. Weighting factors associated with functional or evolutionary conservation information of the loci can be used in the assessment of similarity. The proposed method is very flexible and is easily extended to complex multilocus-analysis settings involving covariates. In addition, the proposed method actually encompasses both single-locus and haplotype-phylogeny analysis methods, which are two of the most widely used approaches in genetic association analysis. We showcase the method with data described in the literature. Ultimately, our method is appropriate for high-dimensional genomic data and anticipates an era when cost-effective exhaustive DNA sequence data can be obtained for a large number of individuals, over and above genotype information focused on a few well-chosen loci.

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