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Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Jun;13(2):115-20.

Glycogen storage disease: clinical, biochemical, and molecular heterogeneity.

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University Childrens' Hospital and Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Laboratory, Munich, Germany.


Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are characterized by abnormal inherited glycogen metabolism in the liver, muscle, and brain and divided into types 0 to X. GSD type I, glucose 6-phosphatase system, has types Ia, Ib, Ic, and Id, glucose 6-phosphatase, glucose 6-phosphate translocase, pyrophosphate translocase, and glucose translocase deficiencies, respectively. GSD type II is caused by defective lysosomal alpha-glucosidase (GAA), subdivided into 4 onset forms. GSD type III, amylo-1,6-glucosidase deficiency, is subdivided into 6 forms. GSD type IV, Andersen disease or amylopectinosis, is caused by deficiency of the glycogen-branching enzyme in numerous forms. GSD type V, McArdle disease or muscle phosphorylase deficiency, is divided into 2 forms. GSD type VI is characterized by liver phosphorylase deficiency. GSD type VII, phosphofructokinase deficiency, has 2 subtypes. GSD types VIa, VIII, IX, or X are supposedly caused by tissue-specific phosphorylase kinase deficiency. GSD type 0, glycogen synthase deficiency, is divided into 2 subtypes.

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