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Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Dec;26(12):2666-72. Epub 2006 Oct 5.

Nitric oxide-dependent suppression of thioredoxin-interacting protein expression enhances thioredoxin activity.

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1
Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA. christian.schulze@bmc.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Cellular redox balance is regulated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems and freely diffusible nitric oxide (NO) promotes antioxidative mechanisms. We show the NO-dependent transcriptional regulation of the antioxidative thioredoxin system.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Incubation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (RPaSMC) with the NO donor compound S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO, 100 micromol/L) suppressed thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), an inhibitor of thioredoxin function, by 71+/-18% and enhanced thioredoxin reductase 2.7+/-0.2 fold (n=6; both P<0.001 versus control). GSNO increased thioredoxin activity (1.9+/-0.5-fold after 4 hours; P<0.05 versus control). Promoter deletion analysis revealed that NO suppression of Txnip transcription is mediated by cis-regulatory elements between -1777 and -1127 bp upstream of the start codon. Hyperglycemia induced Txnip promoter activity (3.9+/-0.2-fold; P<0.001) and abolished NO effects (-37.4+/-1.0% at 5.6 mmol/L glucose versus 12.4+/-2.1% at 22.4 mmol/L glucose; P<0.05). Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that GSNO stimulation and mutation of thioredoxin at Cys69, a site of nitrosylation, had no effect on the Txnip/thioredoxin interaction.

CONCLUSIONS:

NO can regulate cellular redox state by changing expression of Txnip and thioredoxin reductase. This represents a novel antioxidative mechanism of NO independent of posttranslational protein S-nitrosylation of thioredoxin.

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