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J Leukoc Biol. 2007 Jan;81(1):108-18. Epub 2006 Oct 5.

S100B binding to RAGE in microglia stimulates COX-2 expression.

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department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, Sect. Anatomy, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto C.P. 81 Succ. 3, 06122 Perugia, Italy.


Besides exerting regulatory roles within astrocytes, the Ca2+-modulated protein of the EF-hand type S100B is released into the brain extracellular space, thereby affecting astrocytes, neurons, and microglia. However, extracellular effects of S100B vary, depending on the concentration attained and the protein being trophic to neurons up to nanomolar concentrations and causing neuronal apoptosis at micromolar concentrations. Effects of S100B on neurons are transduced by receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). At high concentrations, S100B also up-regulates inducible NO synthase in and stimulates NO release by microglia by synergizing with bacterial endotoxin and IFN-gamma, thereby participating in microglia activation. We show here that S100B up-regulates cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in microglia in a RAGE-dependent manner in the absence of cofactors through independent stimulation of a Cdc42-Rac1-JNK pathway and a Ras-Rac1-NF-kappaB pathway. Thus, S100B can be viewed as an astrocytic endokine, which might participate in the inflammatory response in the course of brain insults, once liberated into the brain extracellular space.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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