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J Phys Chem B. 2006 Oct 12;110(40):19979-84.

Analysis of titanium nanoparticles created by laser irradiation under liquid environments.

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Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.


The results of studies of the formation of various titanium-based nanoparticles by laser ablation of a titanium rod in liquid environments comprised of water, ethanol, 2-propanol, and n-hexane are reported. The effect of fluence on nanoparticle characteristics was studied by ablation with a 532 nm Nd:YAG operating at 10 Hz, showing that mean particle size and the size distribution increase with increasing laser intensity. The solvent plays a crucial role in the nature of the nanoparticles, as solvent components are incorporated into the nanoparticles during formation. Titanium nanoparticles formed in oxygen-rich solvents incorporate oxygen, while those formed in a carbon-rich environment are found to contain carbon. The nanoparticles created in their respective liquid environments are very stable, maintain their character over time, and remain in solution for months after creation.

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