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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Oct 3;48(7):1498-502. Epub 2006 Sep 15.

Influenza vaccination as secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology.

Erratum in

  • J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Dec 19;48(12):2610.


Evidence from cohort studies and a randomized clinical trial indicates that annual vaccination against seasonal influenza prevents cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality in patients with cardiovascular conditions. The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology recommend influenza immunization with inactivated vaccine (administered intramuscularly) as part of comprehensive secondary prevention in persons with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease (Class I, Level B). Immunization with live, attenuated vaccine (administered intranasally) is not currently recommended [corrected] for persons with cardiovascular conditions. It is important to note that influenza vaccination coverage levels overall and in this population remain well below national goals and are marked by disparities across different age and ethnic groups. One of the barriers to vaccination for patients with cardiovascular disease is that cardiology practices frequently do not stock and administer influenza vaccine. Healthcare providers who treat individuals with cardiovascular disease can help improve influenza vaccination coverage rates by providing and strongly recommending vaccination to their patients before and throughout the influenza season.

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