Send to

Choose Destination
Curr Opin Immunol. 2006 Dec;18(6):650-5. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

Genes, environment and immunity in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

Author information

Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet/Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.


The combined role of genes, environment and immunity in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been the subject of recent investigations. New data support a gene-environment interaction between smoking and the MHC class II HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) genes in anti-citrulline antibody (anti-CP(+)) RA but not in anti-CP(-) disease. These data from genetic epidemiology, together with information on citrullination in the lungs of smokers, have prompted the formulation of a new etiological hypothesis for anti-CP(+) RA, suggesting that smoking in the context of HLA-DR SE might trigger immunity to citrulline-modified proteins and that this immunity, after several years, might cause arthritis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center