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Int J Parasitol. 2006 Dec;36(14):1535-41. Epub 2006 Sep 7.

Paraphyly of the Pseudophyllidea (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda): circumscription of monophyletic clades based on phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA.

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Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, and Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia, Branisovská 31, 370 05 Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic.


Phylogenetic relationships of cestodes of the order Pseudophyllidea (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) were examined using sequences of complete small subunit and partial (D1-D3 region) large subunit nuclear rDNA of members of all pseudophyllidean families. The results provide evidence of paraphyly of the order as indicated by previous molecular phylogenetic analyses based on a much lower number of species sequenced. Pseudophyllidean tapeworms represent an artificial assemblage comprising two unrelated clades. "Bothriocephalidea" is formed by four families sensu Bray et al. (1994), namely Bothriocephalidae, Echinophallidae, Philobythiidae and Triaenophoridae, whereas two other families, Diphyllobothriidae and Cephalochlamydidae, give rise to the "Diphyllobothriidea". The present results indicate that "Bothriocephalidea" forms the most derived clade of all difossate and tetrafossate/bothriate tapeworm lineages which are considered to be basal relative to the rest of tetrafossate/bothridiate and acetabulate cestodes. By contrast, "Diphyllobothriidea", which includes medically important parasites (Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra), appeared more basal, without a clearly resolved position within other difossate tapeworm lineages.

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