Send to

Choose Destination
Genome Biol. 2006;7(9):R87.

Patterns of expansion and expression divergence in the plant polygalacturonase gene family.

Author information

Department of Horticulture, Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.



Polygalacturonases (PGs) belong to a large gene family in plants and are believed to be responsible for various cell separation processes. PG activities have been shown to be associated with a wide range of plant developmental programs such as seed germination, organ abscission, pod and anther dehiscence, pollen grain maturation, fruit softening and decay, xylem cell formation, and pollen tube growth, thus illustrating divergent roles for members of this gene family. A close look at phylogenetic relationships among Arabidopsis and rice PGs accompanied by analysis of expression data provides an opportunity to address key questions on the evolution and functions of duplicate genes.


We found that both tandem and whole-genome duplications contribute significantly to the expansion of this gene family but are associated with substantial gene losses. In addition, there are at least 21 PGs in the common ancestor of Arabidopsis and rice. We have also determined the relationships between Arabidopsis and rice PGs and their expression patterns in Arabidopsis to provide insights into the functional divergence between members of this gene family. By evaluating expression in five Arabidopsis tissues and during five stages of abscission, we found overlapping but distinct expression patterns for most of the different PGs.


Expression data suggest specialized roles or subfunctionalization for each PG gene member. PGs derived from whole genome duplication tend to have more similar expression patterns than those derived from tandem duplications. Our findings suggest that PG duplicates underwent rapid expression divergence and that the mechanisms of duplication affect the divergence rate.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center