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Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Oct;54(10):3095-103.

Pharmacogenomic and metabolic biomarkers in the folate pathway and their association with methotrexate effects during dosage escalation in rheumatoid arthritis.

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Prometheus, San Diego, California, USA.



To evaluate the contribution of metabolites (methotrexate [MTX] and folate polyglutamate [PG] levels) and pharmacogenetic biomarkers in the folate pathway to the effects of MTX in patients with rheumatoid arthritis not previously treated with this antifolate.


Forty-eight MTX-naive adult patients were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study. MTX therapy was initiated at 7.5 mg/week and was increased every 4-6 weeks until a therapeutic response was achieved. Response was assessed using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28). Red blood cell (RBC) MTX and folate PG levels were measured with 9 common polymorphisms in the folate pathway. Statistical analyses consisted of generalized linear models and multivariate regressions.


After 6 months of therapy, the median weekly MTX dosage was 17.5 mg and the median decrease in the DAS28 was 2.0. There was a large interpatient variability in RBC MTXPG levels (median 35 nmoles/liter [interquartile range 28-51] at month 6). Patients with a lesser decrease in the DAS28 (fewer improvements) had lower RBC MTXPG levels (P < 0.05) despite the higher MTX dose administered (P < 0.05). RBC folate PG levels decreased significantly during treatment, and a lesser decrease in RBC folate PGs was associated with a lesser decrease in the DAS28 (P < 0.05). Primary side effects were gastrointestinal and neurologic in nature. Risk genotypes associated with toxicity were in gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (-401CC), 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (347GG), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (1298AC/CC), methionine synthase (2756AA), and methionine synthase reductase (66GG).


RBC MTXPG levels are a useful means by which to monitor therapy. The genetic associations presented generate hypotheses, and confirmation in independent cohorts is warranted.

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