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Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006 Dec;16(6):637-44. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

Coevolution, modularity and human disease.

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Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. <>


The concepts of coevolution and modularity have been studied separately for decades. Recent advances in genomics have led to the first systematic studies in each of these fields at the molecular level, resulting in several important discoveries. Both coevolution and modularity appear to be pervasive features of genomic data from all species studied to date, and their presence can be detected in many types of datasets, including genome sequences, gene expression data, and protein-protein interaction data. Moreover, the combination of these two ideas might have implications for our understanding of many aspects of biology, ranging from the general architecture of living systems to the causes of various human diseases.

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