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[Endometrial hyperplasia: A review].

[Article in French]

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Service de Gynécologie Obstétrique, Hôpital Pellegrin, CHU de Bordeaux, place Amélie-Raba-Léon, 33076 Bordeaux.


Endometrial hyperplasias can be divided into two categories based on the presence or absence of cytological atypia and further classified as simple or complex according to the extent of architectural abnormalities. They are usually diagnosed because of irregular bleeding in perimenopause. Hysteroscopy with a biopsy gives a more accurate diagnosis than transvaginal ultrasonography, sonohysterography, or blind curettage. Endometrial hyperplasias with no cytological atypia, regarded as a response to unopposed endogenous estrogenic stimulation, are normally treated with progestins. The intra-uterine route (levonorgestrel intra-uterine system) is more effective and better tolerated than the oral route. Either conservative surgery (endometrial resection, thermal ablation) or radical surgery (hysterectomy) in the case of other genital diseases is performed on women who did not respond to medical treatment. Endometrial hyperplasias with cytological atypia, considered as intra-epithelial neoplasias, are traditionally treated by hysterectomy. The absence of management protocols in the literature offers various treatment options and indications. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol, or aromatase inhibitor are effective, but have adverse effects and are expensive. Endometrial ablation can be performed as a first line therapy in women suffering from bleeding related to hyperplasia without cytological atypia. Medical treatment may be offered to young women suffered from hyperplasias with cytological atypia and desiring pregnancy.

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