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Am J Pathol. 2006 Oct;169(4):1223-37.

Posttranslationally modified proteins as mediators of sustained intestinal inflammation.

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Department of Medicine I, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.


Oxidative and carbonyl stress leads to generation of N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine-modified proteins (CML-mps), which are known to bind the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and induce nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-dependent proinflammatory gene expression. To determine the impact of CML-mps in vivo, RAGE-dependent sustained NF-kappaB activation was studied in resection gut specimens from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamed gut biopsy tissue demonstrated a significant up-regulation of RAGE and increased NF-kappaB activation. Protein extracts from the inflamed zones, but not from noninflamed resection borders, caused perpetuated NF-kappaB activation in cultured endothelial cells, which was mediated by CML-mps including CML-modified S100 proteins. The resulting NF-kappaB activation, lasting 5 days, was primarily inhibited by either depletion of CML-mps or by the addition of sRAGE, p44/42 and p38 MAPKinase-specific inhibitors. Consistently, CML-mps isolated from inflamed gut areas and rectally applied into mice caused NF-kappaB activation, increased proinflammatory gene expression, and histologically detectable inflammation in wild-type mice, but not in RAGE-/- mice. A comparable up-regulation of NF-kappaB and inflammation on rectal application of CML-mps was observed in IL-10-/- mice. Thus, CML-mps generated in inflammatory lesions have the capacity to elicit a RAGE-dependent intestinal inflammatory response.

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