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Subst Use Misuse. 2006;41(10-12):1551-601.

Club drugs as causal risk factors for HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men: a review.

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Antiviral Research Center, University of California, San Diego, 92103, USA.


We reviewed medical and psychology databases for articles published between January 1980 and August 2005 demonstrating associations between HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection risk and club drug use. Seventy-four articles were reviewed, of which 30 provided adjusted risk ratios for associations between HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk and club drug use among men who have sex with men. Definitions and lists of club drugs were broad and inconsistent. We constructed a conceptual framework of biologically plausible pathways for causation. Using Hill's criteria to examine club drugs as causal risk factors for HIV, we found the most evidence for methamphetamine and volatile nitrites; however, more studies are needed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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