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Annu Rev Physiol. 2007;69:341-59.

Phosphatonins and the regulation of phosphate homeostasis.

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1
Nephrology and Hypertension Research, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

Abstract

Inorganic phosphate (P(i)) is required for energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, bone mineralization, and cell signaling. The activity of cell-surface sodium-phosphate (Na(+)-P(i)) cotransporters mediates the uptake of P(i) from the extracellular environment. Na(+)-P(i) cotransporters and organ-specific P(i) absorptive processes are regulated by peptide and sterol hormones, such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)), which interact in a coordinated fashion to regulate P(i) homeostasis. Recently, several phosphaturic peptides such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), secreted frizzled related protein-4 (sFRP-4), matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, and fibroblast growth factor-7 have been demonstrated to play a pathogenic role in several hypophosphatemic disorders. By inhibiting Na(+)-P(i) transporters in renal epithelial cells, these proteins increase renal P(i) excretion, resulting in hypophosphatemia. FGF-23 and sFRP-4 inhibit 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase activity, reducing 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) synthesis and thus intestinal P(i) absorption. This review examines the role of these factors in P(i) homeostasis in health and disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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