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J Am Coll Surg. 2006 Oct;203(4):512-20. Epub 2006 Aug 23.

Femoral vessel injuries: analysis of factors predictive of outcomes.

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1
Division of Trauma and Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Los Angeles County and the University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Femoral vessel injuries are the most common vascular injuries treated in a Level I trauma center. No studies have identified risk factors for survival and complications.

STUDY DESIGN:

We performed a retrospective, 132-month study that included univariate and multivariate analyses.

RESULTS:

We studied 204 patients with 298 vessel injuries: 204 were arterial, 94 were venous. Mean age (+/- SD) was 29+/-13 years and mean Injury Severity Score (+/- SD) was 17+/-8. There were 176 (86%) penetrating injuries and 28 (14%) blunt injuries. Arterial repairs included: reverse saphenous vein graft bypass, 108 (53%); primary repair, 53 (26%); PTFE, 21 (10.2%); ligation, 13 (6.4%); and vein patch, 9 (4.4%). Venous repairs included: ligation, 49 (52%); primary repair, 41 (44%); and bypass, 4 (4%). Fasciotomies included: calf, 56 (27%); thigh, 25 (12%); traumatic amputations, 6 (3%); and delayed amputations, 0. Overall survival rate was 91% (186 of 204), and adjusted survival was 95% (excluding emergency department thoracotomy deaths). There were 1 or more complications in 47 (23%), including wound infection, 31 (15%); venous thrombosis, 6 (3%); bleeding, 5 (2.5%); ARDS, 4 (2%); and arterial thrombosis, 1 (0.5%). Predictors of mortality were age>45 years, Injury Severity Score>25, common femoral artery injury, associated venous and abdominal injury, hypotension, hypothermia, and acidosis; coagulopathy in the operating room and the need for PTFE repair also predicted outcomes. Predictors of postoperative complications were intraoperative hypotension, arterial intimal injury, bony fracture, and thoracic injury.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although survival and limb salvage rates are high for femoral vessel injuries, these injuries incur high complication rates. Independent predictors for mortality are: Injury Severity Score > 25, Glasgow Coma Scale 28, presence of coagulopathy in the operating room, presence of two or more vascular signs, and age > 45 years.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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