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Prehosp Emerg Care. 2006 Oct-Dec;10(4):468-71.

Naloxone use in a tiered-response emergency medical services system.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the delivery and effect of naloxone for opioid overdose in a tiered-response emergency medical services (EMS) system and to ascertain how much time could be saved if the first arriving emergency medical technicians (EMTs) could have administered intranasal naloxone.

METHODS:

This was case series of all EMS-treated overdose patients who received naloxone by paramedics in a two-tiered EMS system during 2004. The system dispatches basic life support-trained fire fighter-EMTs and/or advanced life support-trained paramedics depending on the severity of cases. Main outcomes were geographic distribution of naloxone-treated overdose, severity of cases, response to naloxone, and time interval between arrival of EMTs and arrival of paramedics at the scene.

RESULTS:

There were 164 patients who received naloxone for suspected overdose. There were 75 patients (46%) initially unresponsive to painful stimulus. Respiratory rate was <10 breaths/min in 79 (48%). Death occurred in 36 (22%) at the scene or during transport. A full or partial response to naloxone occurred in 119 (73%). Recognized adverse reactions were limited to agitation/combativeness in 25 (15%) and emesis in six (4%). Average EMT arrival time was 5.9 minutes. Average paramedic arrival time was 11.6 minutes in most cases and 16.1 minutes in 46 cases (28%) in which paramedics were requested by EMTs at the scene.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is potential for significantly earlier delivery of naloxone to patients in opioid overdose if EMTs could deliver intranasal naloxone. A pilot study training and authorizing EMTs to administer intranasal naloxone in suspected opioid overdose is warranted.

PMID:
16997776
DOI:
10.1080/10903120600885134
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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