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J Infect Dis. 2006 Oct 15;194(8):1032-9. Epub 2006 Sep 11.

Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of 1 versus 2 doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in vaccine-naive 5-8-year-old children.

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Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Seattle, WA 98107, USA.



Two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) are recommended for children <9 years old receiving vaccine for the first time, but compliance is suboptimal. This study assessed the need for a second dose of TIV in this age group.


In this prospective, open-label study, 232 influenza vaccine-naive 5-8-year-olds enrolled in a health maintenance organization received 2 doses of TIV in fall 2004. Serum for antibody titer measurement was obtained at 3 time points (n = 222). Parents completed diaries for 5 days.


Both doses of vaccine were well tolerated. The strongest predictor of a protective antibody response (> or =1 : 40) after 1 dose of TIV was baseline seropositive status. In multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, and baseline serostatus, the proportion of children with protective antibody responses was significantly higher after 2 doses than after 1 dose of TIV for each antigen (P < .001, for A/H1N1; P = .01, for A/H3N2; P < .001, for B). Age and sex were not independently predictive of a protective antibody response. Over one-third of children had antibody responses <1:40 for the type B vaccine component, even after 2 doses.


The present study supports the need for 2 doses of TIV in 5-8-year-olds receiving TIV for the first time. Efforts to increase compliance with the 2-dose recommendation are warranted.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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