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EMBO J. 2006 Oct 4;25(19):4663-74. Epub 2006 Sep 21.

Ordered assembly of Sld3, GINS and Cdc45 is distinctly regulated by DDK and CDK for activation of replication origins.

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Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan.


Initiation of chromosome DNA replication in eukaryotes is tightly regulated through assembly of replication factors at replication origins. Here, we investigated dependence of the assembly of the initiation complex on particular factors using temperature-sensitive fission yeast mutants. The psf3-1 mutant, a GINS component mutant, arrested with unreplicated DNA at the restrictive temperature and the DNA content gradually increased, suggesting a defect in DNA replication. The mutation impaired GINS complex formation, as shown by pull-down experiments. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that GINS integrity was required for origin loading of Psf2, Cut5 and Cdc45, but not Sld3. In contrast, loading of Psf2 onto origins depended on Sld3 and Cut5 but not on Cdc45. These results suggest that Sld3 functions furthest upstream in initiation complex assembly, followed by GINS and Cut5, then Cdc45. Consistent with this conclusion, Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase (DDK) but not cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) was required for Sld3 loading, whereas recruitment of the other factors depended on both kinases. These results suggest that DDK and CDK regulate distinct steps in activation of replication origins in fission yeast.

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