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Dev Biol. 2006 Nov 1;299(1):176-92. Epub 2006 Aug 11.

Parcas, a regulator of non-receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, acts during anterior-posterior patterning and somatic muscle development in Drosophila melanogaster.

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  • 1Program in Developmental Biology, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Graduate School of Medical Science at Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA.


We have isolated parcas (pcs) in a screen to identify novel regulators of muscle morphogenesis. Pcs is expressed in the ovary and oocyte during oogenesis and again in the embryo, specifically in the developing mesoderm, throughout muscle development. pcs is first required in the ovary during oogenesis for patterning and segmentation of the early Drosophila embryo due primarily to its role in the regulation of Oskar (Osk) levels. In addition to the general patterning defects observed in embryos lacking maternal contribution of pcs, these embryos show defects in Wingless (Wg) expression, causing losses of Wg-dependent cell types within the affected segment. pcs activity is required again later during embryogenesis in the developing mesoderm for muscle development. Loss and gain of function studies demonstrate that pcs is necessary at distinct times for muscle specification and morphogenesis. Pcs is predicted to be a novel regulator of non-receptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) signaling. We have identified one target of Pcs regulation, the Drosophila Tec kinase Btk29A. While Btk29A appears to be regulated by Pcs during its early role in patterning and segmentation, it does not appear to be a major target of Pcs regulation during muscle development. We propose that Pcs fulfils its distinct roles during development by the regulation of multiple NRTKs.

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