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Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006 Sep;43(5):557-62.

Complete unilateral cleft lip and palate: validity of the five-year index and the Goslon yardstick in predicting long-term dental arch relationships.

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North Thames Cleft Lip and Palate Service, Maxillofacial and Dental Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London, UK.



To assess the validity of the 5-year index by subjecting study models at the age of 5 years to both the 5-year index and the Goslon yardstick, and then relating these results to the Goslon ratings at 10 years.


Retrospective study.


Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.


Study models of 94 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were evaluated at the ages of 5 and 10 years. The dental arch relationships were judged and categorized by using the Goslon yardstick for the 10-year models and both the Goslon yardstick and the 5-year index for the 5-year models.


When used for 5- and 10-year models, the Goslon yardstick showed a kappa score of 0.539 (weighted kappa = 0.579) with a moderate strength of agreement. However, 5-year index scores at 5 years compared with the Goslon scores at 10 years showed a kappa score of only 0.043 (weighted kappa = 0.090), showing poor strength of agreement. Goslon scores at 10 years showed improvement in 14 cases when graded by the same Goslon yardstick at 5 years, whereas there was improvement in 23 cases when the 5-year models were graded by the 5-year index (actual improvement in scores in UCLP cases is highly unlikely).


Although use of the Goslon yardstick at 5 years has demonstrated some inherent flaws in its use at that age, these drawbacks are fewer than those when the 5-year index is used at 5 years of age.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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