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J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 10;281(45):34159-70. Epub 2006 Sep 15.

Arrestin-2 and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 interact with NFkappaB1 p105 and negatively regulate lipopolysaccharide-stimulated ERK1/2 activation in macrophages.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a recently described receptor class involved in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we demonstrate that arrestin-2 and GRK5 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5), proteins that regulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling, play a negative role in TLR4 signaling in Raw264.7 macrophages. We find that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation is significantly enhanced in arrestin-2 and GRK5 knockdown cells. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we tested the effect of arrestin-2 and GRK5 knockdown on LPS-stimulated signaling components that are upstream of ERK phosphorylation. Upon LPS stimulation, IkappaB kinase promotes phosphorylation and degradation of NFkappaB1 p105 (p105), which releases TPL2 (a MAP3K), which phosphorylates MEK1/2, which in turn phosphorylates ERK1/2. We demonstrate that knockdown of arrestin-2 leads to enhanced LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of p105, enhanced TPL2 release, and enhanced MEK1/2 phosphorylation. GRK5 knockdown also results in enhanced IkappaB kinase-mediated p105 phosphorylation and degradation, whereas GRK2 and GRK6 knockdown have no effect on this pathway. In vitro analysis demonstrates that arrestin-2 directly binds to the COOH-terminal domain of p105, whereas GRK5 binds to and phosphorylates p105. Taken together, these results suggest that p105 phosphorylation by GRK5 and binding of arrestin-2 negatively regulates LPS-stimulated ERK activation. These results reveal that arrestin-2 and GRK5 are important negative regulatory components in TLR4 signaling.

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