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AIDS Care. 2006 Oct;18(7):786-94.

Gender differences in attitudes toward AIDS clinical trials among urban HIV-infected individuals from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds.

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  • 1Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (CDUHR), Institute for AIDS Research, National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., New York, NY 10010, USA.


Racial/ethnic minorities and women are under-represented in AIDS clinical trials (ACTs). We examined gender differences in willingness to participate in ACTs among urban HIV-infected individuals (N = 286). Sixty percent of participants were male, and most were from racial/ethnic minority backgrounds (55% African-American, 34% Latino/Hispanic, 11% White/other). Knowledge of ACTs was poor. Males and females did not differ substantially in their distrust of AIDS scientists, or in barriers to ACTs. Almost all (87%) were somewhat or very willing to join ACTs. Females were less willing than males to join, including trials testing new medications or new medication combinations. Males and females differed in correlates of willingness to participate in ACTs. Despite long-standing barriers to medical research among minorities and women, willingness to participate was substantial, particularly for men, although the factors that might motivate them to join differed by gender. Women appeared more averse to trials involving new anti-retroviral regimens than men. Gender-specific outreach, behavioural intervention, and social marketing efforts are needed.

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