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Scand J Immunol. 2006 Oct;64(4):404-11.

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce a distinct cytokine pattern in virus-specific CD4+ memory T cells that is modulated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides.

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Laboratory for Immunohistochemistry and Immunopathology (LIIPAT), Institute of Pathology, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.


Inherent properties of dendritic cell (DC) subsets are important in the regulation of naïve T-cell differentiation (e.g. Th1 versus Th2 cells), whereas effector memory T cells are believed to produce a fixed cytokine repertoire independent of the type of antigen presenting cell. Here we show that two distinct human DC subsets, plasmacytoid DC (PDC) and myeloid CD11c+ DC, induced autologous mumps virus-specific memory CD4(+) T cells to produce markedly different cytokine patterns upon antigen stimulation. PDC stimulated the T cells to produce gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-(IL)-10, whereas CD11c+ DC induced lower levels of IFN-gamma, virtually no IL-10, but significant levels of IL-5. Analysis of intracellular cytokine production showed simultaneous production of IL-10 and IFN-gamma in mumps-specific T cells activated by PDC, a cytokine pattern similar to that described for Th1-like regulatory cells. Introduction of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in PDC/T-cell co-cultures had synergistic effect on virus-dependent IFN-gamma production, whereas the other cytokines remained unchanged. Together, our results show that the type of DC involved in reactivation of previously primed T cells may have significant impact on the resulting cytokine response and suggest that targeting of viral antigens and adjuvant to specific DC subsets should be considered in the design of therapeutic antiviral vaccines.

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