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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 May;27(5):975-82. Epub 2006 Sep 13.

Reduction in oxidative stress by superoxide dismutase overexpression attenuates acute brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage via activation of Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta survival signaling.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5487, USA.


Recent studies have revealed that oxidative stress has detrimental effects in several models of neurodegenerative diseases, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, how oxidative stress affects acute brain injury after SAH remains unknown. We have previously reported that overexpression of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reduces oxidative stress and subsequent neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. In this study, we investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and acute brain injury after SAH using SOD1 transgenic (Tg) rats. SAH was produced by endovascular perforation in wild-type (Wt) and SOD1 Tg rats. Apoptotic cell death at 24 h, detected by a cell death assay, was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of the SOD1 Tg rats compared with the Wt rats. The mortality rate at 24 h was also significantly decreased in the SOD1 Tg rats. A hydroethidine study demonstrated that superoxide anion production after SAH was reduced in the cerebral cortex of the SOD1 Tg rats. Moreover, phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta), which are survival signals in apoptotic cell death, was more enhanced in the cerebral cortex of the SOD1 Tg rats after SAH using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. We conclude that reduction in oxidative stress by SOD1 overexpression may attenuate acute brain injury after SAH via activation of Akt/GSK3beta survival signaling.

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