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Annu Rev Psychol. 2007;58:593-614.

Mediation analysis.

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Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1104, USA.


Mediating variables are prominent in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Differences between mediating variables and confounders, moderators, and covariates are outlined. Statistical methods to assess mediation and modern comprehensive approaches are described. Future directions for mediation analysis are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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