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Clin Dermatol. 2006 Sep-Oct;24(5):348-62.

Lupus erythematosus: systemic and cutaneous manifestations.

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Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, 06030, USA.


Skin and joint involvements are the most commonly occurring manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. There are 3 forms of cutaneous lupus: chronic cutaneous (discoid) lupus, subacute cutaneous lupus, and acute cutaneous lupus. Joint manifestations are usually not associated with warmth of the joints and may be only associated with pain and swelling. Painful or swollen joints respond rapidly to small or moderate doses of corticosteroids, whereas cutaneous manifestations usually respond to antimalarial drugs. Anti-Ro is associated closely with a photosensitive rash and with subacute lupus.

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