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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Nov 15;66(4):1092-9. Epub 2006 Sep 11.

Case-matched comparison of contemporary radiation therapy to surgery in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.

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Department of Urology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.



Few studies critically compare current radiotherapy techniques to surgery for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, despite an urgent need to determine which approach offers superior cancer control. Our objective was to compare rates of biochemical relapse-free survival (BFS) and surrogates of disease specific survival among men with high risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate as a function of treatment modality.


Retrospective data from 409 men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) > or =10 or Gleason 7-10 or Stage > or =T2b cancer treated uniformly at one university between March 1988 and December 2000 were analyzed. Patients had undergone radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy implant alone (BTM), or external beam radiotherapy with brachytherapy boost with short-term neoadjuvant and adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (BTC). From the total study population a 1:1 matched-cohort analysis (208 patients matched via prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score) comparing RP with BTC was performed as well.


Estimated 4-year BFS rates were superior for patients treated with BTC (BTC 72%, BTM 25%, RP 53%; p < 0.001). Matched analysis of BTC vs. RP confirmed these results (BTC 73%, BTM 55%; p = 0.010). Relative risk (RR) of biochemical relapse for BTM and BTC compared with RP were 2.92 (1.95-4.36) and 0.56 (0.36-0.87), (p < 0.001, p = 0.010). RR for BTC from the matched cohort analysis was 0.44 (0.26-0.74; p = 0.002).


High-risk prostate cancer patients receiving multimodality radiation therapy (BTC) display apparently superior BFS compared with those receiving surgery (RP) or brachytherapy alone (BTM).

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