Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2006 Sep;61(5):S232-9.

Snowbirds, sunbirds, and stayers: seasonal migration of elderly adults in Florida.

Author information

Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 221 Matherly Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7145, USA.



Most migration statistics in the United States focus on changes in place of usual residence, thereby missing temporary moves such as business trips, vacations, and seasonal migration. In this article, we analyze the temporary in- and out-migration of elderly adults in Florida. Our primary objectives are to develop a methodology for estimating the number of temporary migrants and to analyze their demographic characteristics.


Using survey data, we estimated the number, timing, and duration of temporary moves and the origins, destinations, and characteristics of elderly temporary migrants. We compared the characteristics of temporary in-migrants, out-migrants, and non-migrants, and we used logistic regression analysis in order to evaluate differences in those characteristics.


We estimate that Florida had more than 800,000 elderly temporary in-migrants and more than 300,000 elderly temporary out-migrants at peak times in 2005. Income, education, employment, and health status were among the major determinants of temporary migration.


The temporary migration of elderly adults has a major impact on the resident populations of both sending and receiving communities. This article presents a methodology for estimating temporary migration and provides insights into migratory patterns that cannot be achieved by focusing solely on changes in place of usual residence.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center