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Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct;28(5):688-91.

Twin reversed arterial perfusion: fetoscopic laser coagulation of placental anastomoses or the umbilical cord.

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Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.



To assess the feasibility and outcome of fetoscopic laser coagulation in pregnancies with twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence.


In a prospective multicenter study, percutaneous fetoscopic laser coagulation of placental anastomoses (n = 18) or the umbilical cord of the acardiac twin (n = 42) was performed in 60 consecutive pregnancies at a median gestational age of 18.3 (range, 14.3-24.7) weeks under local or locoregional anesthesia.


Vascular coagulation with arrest of blood flow was achieved in 82% (49/60) of cases by laser alone and in a further 15% (9/60) by laser coagulation in combination with bipolar forceps. The overall survival rate of the pump twin was 80% (48/60). Median gestational age at delivery was 37.4 (range, 23.7-41.4) weeks and the median interval between the procedure and delivery was 18.2 (range, 1.1-25.7) weeks. Median birth weight was 2720 (range, 540-3840) g. Preterm premature rupture of membranes before 34 weeks' gestation occurred in 18% (11/60) at a median of 62 (range, 1-102) days after the procedure. However, only two (3%) women delivered within 28 days of the procedure.


Fetoscopic laser coagulation of placental vascular anastomoses or the umbilical cord of the acardiac twin is an effective treatment of TRAP sequence, with a survival rate of 80%, and 67% of pregnancies with surviving pump twins going beyond 36 weeks' gestation without further complications.

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