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Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Aug 15;40(16):5124-31.

Toxicogenomic response of Staphylococcus aureus to peracetic acid.

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  • 1Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park 20742, USA.


Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many incidents of hospital-acquired infection, which causes 90,000 deaths and dollars 4.5 billion loss a year in the United States. Despite a wide use of disinfectants such as peracetic acid in health care environments, we certainly need better understanding of the effects of antimicrobial application on target pathogens to avert infection outbreaks. Consequently, herein, we explored for the first time the toxicogenomic response of S. aureus to a sublethal concentration of peracetic acid (1 mM) by using microarray-based transcriptome analysis. In particular, we investigated the dynamics of global gene expression profiles during its cellular response, which involved initial growth inhibition (10 min) and subsequent partial recovery (20 min). Further, we compared transcriptome responses to peracetic acid between S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our findings show that (i) the regulation of membrane transport genes was significantly altered, (ii) DNA repair and replication genes were selectively induced, and (iii) primary metabolism-related genes were differently repressed between the two growth states. Most intriguingly, we revealed that many virulence factor genes were induced upon the exposure, which proposes a possibilitythatthe pathogenesis of S. aureus may be stimulated in response to peracetic acid.

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