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Crit Rev Toxicol. 2006 May;36(5):387-457.

An updated weight of the evidence evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects of low doses of bisphenol A.

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  • 1Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.


There is controversy over whether low doses of bisphenol A (BPA, CAS no. 80-05-7) cause reproductive and developmental effects in humans. We update the 2004 weight-of-evidence assessment of an expert panel convened by Harvard's Center for Risk Analysis by critically evaluating over 50 additional studies published between April 2002 and February 2006 that examine in vivo reproductive and developmental toxicity in mammals at doses <or=5 mg/kg-d. Our findings are consistent with the Harvard study: some statistically significant findings in rats and mice exist but they are generally countered by more numerous studies showing no effect for similar endpoints. No effect is marked or consistent across species, doses, and time points. Some mouse studies report morphological changes in testes and sperm and some non-oral mouse studies report morphological changes in female reproductive organs. Owing to lack of first-pass metabolism, results from non-oral studies are of limited relevance to oral human exposure. Human biomonitoring indicates exposures lower than the "low" doses in the reviewed animal studies. Reports of human health impact are very limited and inconsistent. Taken together, the weight of evidence does not support the hypothesis that low oral doses of BPA adversely affect human reproductive and developmental health.

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