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Trends Neurosci. 1990 Jul;13(7):244-54.

Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the basal ganglia.

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Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139.


The basal ganglia have become a focus for work on neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. These structures contain a remarkable diversity of neuroactive substances, organized into functional subsystems that have unique developmental histories and vulnerabilities in neurodegenerative diseases. A new view of the basal ganglia is emerging on the basis of this neurochemical heterogeneity, suggesting that dynamic regulation of transmitter expression may be a key to extrapyramidal function.

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