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Toxicol Lett. 2006 Oct 25;166(3):200-11. Epub 2006 Jul 14.

Induction of cytochromes P450, caspase-3 and DNA damage by PCB3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in porcine ovary.

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  • 1Laboratory of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, Krakow, Poland.

Abstract

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) levels of tens and hundreds of pg/ml for individual congeners are measured in human follicular fluid. PCB3 (4-chlorobiphenyl), caused a significant increase in estradiol secretion in porcine granulose-theca cell co-cultures and its two metabolites, 4-OH-PCB3 and 3,4-diOH-PCB3, were even more potent than PCB3 itself [Ptak, A., Ludewig, G., Lehmler, H.J., Wojtowicz, A.K., Robertson, L.W., Gregoraszczuk, E.L. 2005. Comparison of the actions of 4-chlorobiphenyl and its hydroxylated metabolites on estradiol secretion by ovarian follicles in primary cells in culture. Reprod. Toxicol. 20, 57-64]. The question is whether these follicle cells are potentially able to metabolize PCB3 to hydroxylated and genotoxic or cytotoxic intermediates. We report here that granulose-theca co-cultures express xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 activities, with CYP1A1>CYP2B>>CYP1A2. A significant increase in CYP1A1 and 2B, but not CYP1A2, activity was seen in cells that were exposed to 6 ng/ml PCB3 or 20 nM 17-beta-estradiol. An increase in caspase-3 activity, indicative for apoptosis, was only observed in PCB3-exposed cells after 24 h exposure. Genotoxicity, determined with the Comet assay, was initially reduced after 24 h exposure to PCB3 and both metabolites compared to untreated controls, followed by a significant transient increase in Comets at the 4 and 24 h time point with PCB3 and 4-OH-PCB3. 3,4-diOH-PCB3 induced a significant increase only after 72 h of recovery. We hypothesize that these biphasic damage kinetics may be due to cross-links caused by adduct formation. These results show for the first time that granulose-theca cells in co-culture express CYP1A1, 2B and 1A2 activities and that PCBs at concentrations that are reached in the environment induce genotoxicity in granulosa cells.

PMID:
16949219
DOI:
10.1016/j.toxlet.2006.07.304
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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