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Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Sep;231(8):1353-64.

Antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cardiomyocytes: Chemical inducibility and chemoprotection against oxidant and simulated ischemia-reperfusion injury.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Medical Center, 473 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.


The increasing recognition of the role for oxidative stress in cardiac disorders has led to extensive investigation on the protection by exogenous antioxidants against oxidative cardiac injury. On the other hand, another strategy for protecting against oxidative cardiac injury may be through upregulation of the endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in the myocardium by chemical inducers. However, our current understanding of the chemical inducibility of cardiac cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes is very limited. In this study, using rat cardiac H9c2 cells we have characterized the concentration- and time-dependent induction of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes by 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), and the resultant chemoprotective effects on oxidative cardiac cell injury. Incubation of H9c2 cells with D3T resulted in a marked concentration- and time-dependent induction of a number of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes, including catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), GSH S-transferase (GST), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1). D3T treatment of H9c2 cells also caused an increase in mRNA expression of catalase, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GR, GSTA1, M1 and P1, and NQO1. Moreover, both mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2 were induced in D3T-treated cells. D3T pretreatment led to a marked protection against H9c2 cell injury elicited by various oxidants and simulated ischemia-reperfusion. D3T pretreatment also resulted in decreased intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen in H9c2 cells after exposure to the oxidants as well as simulated ischemia-reperfusion. This study demonstrates that a series of endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in H9c2 cells can be induced by D3T in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion, and that the D3T-upregulated cellular defenses are accompanied by a markedly increased resistance to oxidative cardiac cell injury.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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