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Stroke. 2006 Oct;37(10):2479-83. Epub 2006 Aug 31.

Long-term cognitive transitions, rates of cognitive change, and predictors of incident dementia in a population-based first-ever stroke cohort.

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  • 1National Stroke Research Institute, Heidelberg Heights, Melbourne, Australia. velandai.srikanth@med.monash.edu.au

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

There are few data on long-term cognitive outcomes after first-ever stroke. We aimed to study long-term cognitive transitions, rates of cognitive change, and factors associated with incident dementia and cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND) 2 years after first-ever stroke.

METHODS:

A population-based cohort of incident first-ever stroke cases (n=99; mean age, 69.9 years) and an age- and sex-matched comparison group (nonstrokes, n=99) were followed up for 2 years by 3 serial examinations. Rates of cognitive change were compared by repeated-measures analyses. Factors associated with incident dementia and CIND at 2 years were determined by multinomial logistic regression.

RESULTS:

Significant stroke x time interactions were present for all cognitive domains, with stroke cases showing a greater rate of decline compared with nonstrokes. Stroke recurrence during follow-up was responsible for significantly greater global decline. Strokes with recurrence (P=0.02), age (P=0.004), and baseline cognitive impairment (P<0.001) were independently associated with incident dementia at 2 years. Strokes without recurrence (P=0.008), age (P=0.001), and baseline cognitive impairment (P<0.001) were independently associated with CIND at 2 years.

CONCLUSIONS:

Recurrent stroke contributes importantly to global cognitive decline after a first-ever stroke. Secondary stroke prevention will be important in ameliorating dementia related to stroke. Mechanisms underlying the progression of early cognitive impairment to dementia in stroke patients need further investigation.

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