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Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2006 Oct;17(5):339-48. Epub 2006 Sep 1.

Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II and its functions in (patho)physiological processes.

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Laboratory of Experimental Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus University MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.


Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with anti-angiogenic properties. Its precursor, proEMAP, is identical to the p43 auxiliary component of the tRNA multisynthetase complex and therefore involved in protein translation. Although most of the activities have been ascribed to the active form EMAP-II, also p43 has reported cytokine properties. ProEMAP/p43 and EMAP-II act on many levels and on many cell types including endothelial cells, immune cells and fibroblasts. In this review we summarize all available data on isolation, expression and functions of EMAP-II both in physiological processes as well as in pathological settings, like cancer. We also discuss the different reported mechanisms for processing of proEMAP/p43 into EMAP-II. Finally, we speculate on the possible applications of this cytokine for (cancer) therapy.

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