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Hypertens Res. 2006 Jun;29(6):397-402.

Effectiveness of a spot urine method in evaluating daily salt intake in hypertensive patients taking oral antihypertensive drugs.

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Department of General Internal Medicine, Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital, Morioka, Japan.


Kawasaki et al. developed a spot urine method (SUM) for evaluating daily salt intake using one pre-breakfast sample obtained after initial voiding upon arising. Their subjects were healthy persons who were not taking any regular medications. To determine whether SUM can be successfully used for patients taking antihypertensive drugs, we estimated daily salt intake in 73 hypertensive patients by SUM and by a food consumption method (FCM) when they were at home, and also by SUM in the hospital with a defined intake of 7 g of sodium chloride (NaCl). Forty-one patients took oral antihypertensive medications once daily, while 32 patients took none. Mean daily salt intakes by SUM during admission were 7-8 g of NaCl in both groups (95% confidence intervals: 5.0-10.6 g in the medication group; 5.2-11.1 g in the no-medication group), which corresponded well to the diet. In contrast, ambulatory daily salt intake by SUM varied widely (95% confidence intervals: 5.5-20.7 g in the medication group; 7.6-22.8 g in the no-medication group). However, the daily salt intakes determined by SUM and FCM correlated significantly with each other in the medication group (r=0.69, p<0.01) and the no-medication group (r=0.66, p<0.01). SUM is therefore a reliable method for evaluating daily salt intake in patients taking antihypertensive medication as well as unmedicated patients.

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