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Methods Enzymol. 2006;411:352-69.

Gene expression omnibus: microarray data storage, submission, retrieval, and analysis.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.


The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository at the National Center for Biotechnology Information archives and freely distributes high-throughput molecular abundance data, predominantly gene expression data generated by DNA microarray technology. The database has a flexible design that can handle diverse styles of both unprocessed and processed data in a Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment-supportive infrastructure that promotes fully annotated submissions. GEO currently stores about a billion individual gene expression measurements, derived from over 100 organisms, submitted by over 1500 laboratories, addressing a wide range of biological phenomena. To maximize the utility of these data, several user-friendly web-based interfaces and applications have been implemented that enable effective exploration, query, and visualization of these data at the level of individual genes or entire studies. This chapter describes how data are stored, submission procedures, and mechanisms for data retrieval and query. GEO is publicly accessible at

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