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J Pediatr. 2006 Sep;149(3):320-3.

Coronary artery calcification, serum lipids, lipoproteins, and peripheral inflammatory markers in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

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Pediatric Endocrine Unit, Hospital de Clínicas Caracas and Fundación Cardiovascular, Caracas, Venezuela.



To determine whether coronary artery calcification (CAC), elevated fasting lipids, and lipoproteins and peripheral inflammatory markers are present in insulin-dependent diabetic adolescents and young adults several years after diagnosis.


Hispanic insulin-dependent diabetics (n = 32) diagnosed a mean of 7.8 +/- 4.5 years ago (range, 3 to 16 years), with a mean glycosylated hemoglobin concentration at the time of the study of 8.8% +/- 2.3% and a mean chronological age of 16.1 +/- 4.4 years, were evaluated. Healthy patients (n = 15) with a chronological age (CA) of 15.2 +/- 2.2 years served as control subjects. CAC was assessed by multiple slice computed tomography, and total CAC score in Agatston units was calculated. Fasting lipids, C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein (Apo) A, Apo B, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentrations were measured in all subjects.


Neither adolescents with type 1 diabetes nor healthy control subjects presented with evidence of CAC. Fasting lipids, Apo A, Apo B, CRP, and MMP-9 concentrations were similar between diabetic subjects and control subjects. However, 34.4% and 25.0% of our type 1 diabetic subjects had elevated total and LDL cholesterol levels (>200 and >130 mg/dL, respectively), whereas 15.6% and 28.1% had elevated triglyceride and Apo B concentrations (>150 mg/dL and >100 mg/dL, respectively). In addition, 28.1% and 34.4% presented with elevated CRP and MMP-9 levels (>2 mg/L and >80 ng/mL, respectively). Total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo B, CRP, and MMP-9 concentrations correlated positively with duration of the disease and with glycosylated hemoglobin levels.


Although the study adolescents with type 1 diabetes did not present any radiologic evidence of CAC at this stage of the disease, they remain a high-risk group for the development of microvascular and macrovascular artery disease, as risk factors such as elevated lipoproteins and proinflammatory markers are already present in a significant percentage of patients studied.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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