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Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Oct 16;72(8):1042-50. Epub 2006 Aug 30.

Site-dependent contributions of P-glycoprotein and CYP3A to cyclosporin A absorption, and effect of dexamethasone in small intestine of mice.

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Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan.


We examined whether the oral bioavailability of cyclosporin A is controlled primarily by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or CYP3A in the small intestine. In situ loop method was used to evaluate the uptake of cyclosporin A (40nmol) at the upper and lower intestine of wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice treated or not treated with dexamethasone (75mg/kg/day, 7 days, i.p.). Expression of CYP3A mRNA in the control group was higher in the upper than the lower intestine, while that of the multidrug resistance-1a (mdr1a) mRNA was in the opposite order. Dexamethasone administration potently induced CYP3A and mdr1a mRNAs in the lower and upper intestine, respectively. At 45min after cyclosporin A administration into an upper intestinal loop of the control group of wild-type mice, the ratio of residual cyclosporin A to dose did not differ significantly from that of mdr1a/1b knockout mice, whereas in dexamethasone-treated wild-type mice, the residual ratio was increased significantly. The ratio of the cyclosporin A metabolite M17 to cyclosporin A in portal venous blood at an upper intestinal loop of mdr1a/1b knockout mice was much higher than that a lower intestinal loop. The M17/cyclosporin A ratio of portal venous blood at a lower intestinal loop in mdr1a/1b knockout mice was increased significantly by dexamethasone treatment. These results suggest that, under physiological conditions, the oral bioavailability of cyclosporin A is mainly controlled by CYP3A in the upper intestine, rather than liver, but when P-gp is induced by steroid, the intestinal absorption of cyclosporin A may be inhibited.

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