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Neuroscience. 2006 Nov 3;142(4):1281-92. Epub 2006 Aug 28.

The effect of single or repeated restraint stress on several signal molecules in paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus and locus coeruleus.

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1
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, and Institute of Natural Medicine, Hallym University, 1 Okchundong, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-702, South Korea. hwsuh@hallym.ac.kr

Abstract

The effect of single or repeated restraint stress on several signal molecules in the hypothalamus was studied in ICR mice. Single restraint stress was induced for 30, 60, and 120 min. A repeated restraint stress was induced for 2 h daily during four consecutive days, and then induced in the same time course on the fifth day. In the immunoblot assay, we observed that the signal molecules c-Fos, phosphorylated extracellular cell-regulated protein kinase (pERK), phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) and phosphorylated cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) in the hypothalamus were increased by single restraint, and the increased c-Fos and pERK levels were attenuated by repeated restraint stress. However, pCaMKII and pCREB levels were increased by both single and repeated restraint stress. We also observed in the immunohistochemistry study that immunoreactivities (IR) of these signal molecules were changed in paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate nuclei (ArcN) of the hypothalamus in accordance with immunoblot results. Furthermore, in confocal immunofluorescence, the pCaMKII and pCREB up-regulated by repeated restraint stress were co-localized within many neurons of PVN and ArcN. In addition, we found that c-Fos and pCaMKII IR in locus coeruleus (LC) were increased by single restraint, and were attenuated by repeated restraint stress. However, the pERK and pCREB IR were increased by both single and repeated restraint stress. The confocal study revealed that pERK and pCREB up-regulated by repeated restraint stress were co-localized within many neurons of LC. Our results suggest that single and repeated restraint stress differentially triggers the induction and phosphorylation of several signal molecules in the PVN, ArcN, and LC. In addition, single and repeated stress stimuli elicited the brain-region specific changes of signal molecules examined. Furthermore, the upstream signal molecule activating CREB may be also brain-region specific, especially in repeated stress stimuli.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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