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Toxicology. 1990 May 31;62(2):175-87.

Immunochemical and molecular biological studies on human placental cigarette smoke-inducible cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities.

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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Finland.


The induction of specific forms of cytochrome P-450 and P-450-associated xenobiotic-metabolizing monooxygenase activities by maternal cigarette smoking was characterized in human placenta employing polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and recombinant DNA probes. The anti-BNF-B2 (prepared against rat liver P-450 induced by beta-naphthoflavone) inhibited about 60 per cent of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities (ERDE) in placental tissues from smoking mothers, whereas the anti-PB-B2 (to phenobarbital-induced rat liver P-450) was without significant inhibitory effect. Inhibition of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECDE) by the anti-BNF-B2 was dependent on maternal smoking: the enzyme from non-smokers was not significantly inhibited, whereas the enzyme from smokers was variably inhibited by 15-60 per cent. The monoclonal antibodies towards the major 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible and phenobarbital-inducible rat liver P-450s (Mab 1-7-1 and 2-66-3, respectively) behaved similarly, except the inhibition was somewhat stronger if present. Antibody raised against rat liver NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxido-reductase did not inhibit any activity studied. In immunoblotting experiments, the anti-reductase recognized the protein in human placental microsomes. However, neither anti-BNF-B2, anti-PB-B2 or Mab 1-7-1 or Mab 2-66-3 detected any proteins in human placental microsomes, regardless of smoking status. Northern blot hybridization analysis of placental RNA samples showed that only P-450IA1 mRNA existed in the placentas of smoking mothers with detectable ERDE activity. Despite the discrepancy between protein blotting and immunoinhibition data all other findings support the conclusion that maternal cigarette smoking induces the expression of the CYPIA1 gene (and not CYPIA2), resulting in an increased synthesis of P-450IA1 protein and increased AHH, ERDE and ECDE activities in human placenta.

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