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World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Aug 14;12(30):4819-31.

Extraintestinal manifestations and complications in inflammatory bowel diseases.

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  • 1Robert-Bosch-Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Auerbachstrasse 110, D-70376 Stuttgart, Germany.


Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) that often involve organs other than those of the gastrointestinal tract. These nonintestinal affections are termed extraintestinal symptoms. Differentiating the true extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases from secondary extraintestinal complications, caused by malnutrition, chronic inflammation or side effects of therapy, may be difficult. This review concentrates on frequency, clinical presentation and therapeutic implications of extraintestinal symptoms in inflammatory bowel diseases. If possible, extraintestinal manifestations are differentiated from extraintestinal complications. Special attention is given to the more recently described sites of involvement; i.e. thromboembolic events, osteoporosis, pulmonary involvement and affection of the central nervous system.

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