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Biomaterials. 2006 Dec;27(34):5763-70.

The correlation between difference in foreign body reaction between implant locations and cytokine and MMP expression.

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1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical Biology Section, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

The foreign body reaction (FBR) differs between subcutaneously and supra-epicardially implanted materials. We hypothesize that this is a result of differences in cytokine, chemokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) dynamics. Therefore we applied collagen disks subcutaneously and on the epicardium in mice and analyzed the FBR from day 1 to 21. Both the influx of leukocytes and implant degradation were higher in supra-epicardially implanted collagen than in subcutaneously implanted material. This correlated with a higher gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and IL-6, and a lower expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, the higher supra-epicardial expression of PMN attractants CXCL1/KC and CXCL2/MIP2 correlated with a higher and prolonged PMN influx. The gene expression levels of collagen degrading MMPs, i.e. MMP8, MMP13 and MMP14 were similar in subcutaneous and supra-epicardial disks. However, the activity of these enzymes was markedly higher supra-epicardially. In addition, the MMP9 expression was higher supra-epicardially, suggesting a role for this enzyme in the degradation process. In conclusion, a strong pro-inflammatory milieu is generated after supra-epicardial implantation that enables prolonged PMN presence and activation. This, together with the high supra-epicardial MMP9 level, could explain the observed difference in Col-I degradation between locations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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