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Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006 Sep;6(5):403-13.

Retinitis pigmentosa, pigmentary retinopathies, and neurologic diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Ophthalmology, University of FloridaCollege of Medicine, Box 100284 JHMHSC, Gainesville, FL 32610-0284, USA. tbhatti@eye.ufl.edu

Abstract

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a group of inherited retinal diseases with phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. The pathophysiologic basis of the progressive visual loss in patients with RP is not completely understood but is felt to be due to a primary retinal photoreceptor cell degenerative process mainly affecting the rods of the peripheral retina. In most cases RP is seen in isolation (nonsyndromic), but in some other cases it may be a part of a genetic, metabolic, or neurologic syndrome or disorder. Nyctalopia, or night blindness, is the most common symptom of RP. The classic fundus appearance of RP includes retinal pigment epithelial cell changes resulting in retinal hypo- or hyperpigmentation ("salt-and-pepper"), retinal granularity, and bone spicule formation. The retinal vessels are often narrowed or attenuated and there is a waxy pallor appearance of the optic nerve head. Electroretinography will demonstrate rod and cone photoreceptor cell dysfunction and is a helpful test in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with RP. A detailed history with pedigree analysis, a complete ocular examination, and the appropriate paraclinical testing should be performed in patients complaining of visual difficulties at night or in dim light. This review discusses the clinical manifestations of RP as well as describing the various systemic diseases, with a special emphasis on neurologic diseases, associated with a pigmentary retinopathy.

PMID:
16928351
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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