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Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2006 Sep;50(8):982-7.

Effects of cigarette smoking on serum fluoride concentrations and renal function integrity after 1 MAC-h sevoflurane anaesthesia.

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Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.



Tobacco smoke contains various chemicals which may affect drug metabolism. Sevoflurane is metabolized to inorganic fluoride, and elevated serum fluoride concentrations (S-F(-)) may cause deterioration of renal function. Whether smokers develop high S-F(-) and associated disturbances in renal function is not known.


We investigated sevoflurane metabolism in 25 non-smoking and 25 smoking (> 10 cigarettes/day) generally healthy women, aged 19-68 years, undergoing gynaecological elective surgery under one minimum alveolar concentration-hour (1 MAC-h) standardized sevoflurane anaesthesia. S-F(-) was measured for 24 h. Glomerular and tubular function was assessed by measuring serum and urine tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI), beta(2)-microglobulin and serum creatinine for 48 h after sevoflurane inhalation.


There were no differences between the two study groups with regard to S-F(-). It increased significantly in both groups: in non-smokers, from a baseline between 1.0 and 11 micromol/l (median, 1.6 micromol/l) to a maximum between 8.2 and 40 micromol/l (26 micromol/l) (P < 0.001) and, in smokers, from a baseline between 0.5 and 5.2 micromol/l (1.7 micromol/l) to a maximum between 19 and 71 micromol/l (25 micromol/l) (P < 0.001). In both groups, S-F(-) remained elevated for the entire sampling period (P < 0.001). In all five women (one non-smoker and four smokers) with a maximum S-F(-) of 40 micromol/l or higher and an area under the serum fluoride concentration-time curve (AUC(F0-24)) of 500 micromol/h/l or higher, serum TATI increased above the pathological concentration of 3.0 nmol/l, whereas only six of the 45 patients with S-F(-) below 40 micromol/l had serum TATI above 3.0 nmol/l (P < 0.001). Beta(2)-Microglobulin increased significantly (> 1 mg/l) in two patients with high S-F(-) relative to two of the 45 patients with S-F(-) below 40 micromol/l (P= 0.005). None of the patients developed clinically detectable renal dysfunction.


Smoking did not affect S-F(-) after sevoflurane anaesthesia. Glomerular dysfunction, seen as increased serum TATI, was noted in five women with S-F(-) above 40 micromol/l. Our results suggest that the renal toxic threshold of S-F(-) seems to be lower than the earlier reported value of 50 micromol/l.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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