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Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006 Sep;33(9):813-5.

Effects of individual ginsenosides, ginkgolides and flavonoids on CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 activity in human liver microsomes.

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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30310-1458, USA.


1. The effects of four individual ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rd), two ginkgolides (A and B) and one flavonoid (quercetin) on CYP2C19-dependent S-mephenytoin 4 cent-hydroxylation and CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol 1 cent-hydroxylation were evaluated in human liver microsomes. 2. Increasing concentrations of each test compound were added to microsomal incubation mixtures containing a well-characterized marker substrate (S-mephenytoin for CYP2C19 or bufuralol for CYP2D6) to determine their IC(50) values (compound concentration yielding 50% inhibition of a marker enzyme activity), which were estimated by graphical inspection. 3. For CYP2C19, the IC(50) values were 46, 46 and 62 micromol/L for ginsenoside Rd, quercetin and ginsenoside Rb2, respectively, whereas only ginsenoside Rd had an IC(50) value of 57 micromol/L for CYP2D6. 4. The data suggest that the tested compounds are not likely to inhibit the metabolism of the concurrent use of a given drug whose primary route of elimination is through CYP2C19 or CYP2D6.

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