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Magn Reson Imaging. 2006 Sep;24(7):959-62. Epub 2006 Jun 8.

Imaging beta-galactosidase activity using 19F chemical shift imaging of LacZ gene-reporter molecule 2-fluoro-4-nitrophenol-beta-D-galactopyranoside.

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Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9058, USA.


2-Fluoro-4-nitrophenol-beta-D-galactopyranoside (OFPNPG) belongs to a novel class of NMR active molecules (fluoroaryl-beta-D-galactopyranosides), which are highly responsive to the action of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal). OFPNPG has a single 19F peak (-55 ppm relative to aqueous sodium trifluoroacetate). Upon cleavage by beta-gal, the pH sensitive aglycone 2-fluoro-4-nitrophenol (OFPNP) is observed at a chemical shift of -59 to -61 ppm. The chemical shift response is sufficient to observe beta-gal activity using chemical shift imaging (CSI). 19F CSI studies of enzyme activity and lacZ gene expression in 9L-glioma and MCF7 breast cancer cells are presented, providing further evidence for the utility of OFPNPG as a gene-reporter molecule for future in vivo studies.

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